Historically, immunizations have been tremendously successful in the United States, reducing childhood vaccine preventable diseases by 97–100 percent. However, vaccine preventable diseases remain. Immunization Information Systems play a critical role in maintaining and improving vaccination coverage and reducing vaccine preventable diseases in the United States. An Immunization Information System (IIS), also known as an immunization registry, is a confidential, computerized, population-based information system that collects and consolidates vaccination data from vaccine providers and provides tools for designing and sustaining effective immunization strategies at the provider and program levels.
This report provides an environmental scan of IIS and their role in U.S. immunization strategy. More specifically, it discusses Minnesota law and practice regarding its IIS, the Minnesota Immunization Information Connection (MIIC), and discusses implementation of IIS within Minnesota’s legal, cultural, political, and economic context.
In particular, the report analyzes patient consent models for including immunization data in an IIS. States employ three models for including immunization data in an IIS. These models reflect a continuum with regard to requirements for explicit individual consent – from mandatory participation in an IIS, to inclusion in an IIS unless the individual requests otherwise (implied consent or “opt-out”), to inclusion in an IIS only with the individual’s express consent (“opt-in”).